The climatic and melliferous conditions are favourable for apiculture in Romania. Productions as high as 25,000 tonnes have been obtained in certain years, as the Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate The three major vegetation zones are the alpine, forest, and steppe .Forests cover 29% of the country surface, with 218,500 ha of virgin forests. More than 69% are deciduous, oaks being present as Quercus species (Q. robur, Q. petraea, Q. pendiculiflora, Q. cerries, Q. frainetto), accompanied by Betula pendula, Fagus sylvatica, Larix, Carpinus, and Fraxinus. Robinia pseudoacaciaoccupies 120,000 ha, being found mainly in forest and plain areas; it also appears sporadically up to 400 m altitude. Tilia occupies around 54,100 ha in the forested area, the most massive culture of linden being located in Moldavia. Coniferous trees in mountains areas cover almost 31.5% of the forest. The main species present in these realms are Picea abies, Pinus cembra, and Pinus sylvestris. In the main six Romanian regions the following species are also present: Amyldalus nana, Atemisia santonica, Chamaecytisus ratisbonensis, Ruscus aculeantus, Paeonia peregrine, Syringa josikaea, and Tamus communis. Dobrogea region is rather different, characterized by vegetation elements common to the Danube Delta, including Carpinus orientalis, Frazinus pallisae, Populus alba, Q. pedunculiflora, Tilia tomentosa, and Vitis silvestris. Thorny bushes of Berberis vulgaris, Christi, Crataegus monogyna, and Paliurus spina are very much encountered.

More than 60% of land in Romania is used for agriculture. One-third sustains permanent pastures, the rest is tillable. More than 50% of the arable land is planted with grains (wheat, oat, barley, and maize). Oilseeds occupy around 10%, mainly Brassica napus and Helianthus annuus. There are also other crops, such as soy, vegetables (potatoes, tomatoes, cucumber, onion, cabbage, carrot, pepper, and melons), sugar beet, rice, and vineyards. This is why the most common types are acacia, linden, raspberry, sunflower, mint, honeydew, chestnut, heather, or polyfloral honey.

Data on honey production in Europe is presently available from Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Database, FAOSTAT, from 1961 until 2013; information on the European honey production is collected. In 1976, the production exceeded for the first time 100,000 tonnes, while in 2002, the 200,000 tonnes milestone has been reached. Production evolution has been constantly influenced by climatic conditions, agricultural practices, and honey-harvesting procedures. Their effects are visible in the production dynamic since 1961. According to the FAO data, the European production represented between 10 and 15% of the world production .

In Romania honey has a long tradition and is used a lot in apitherapy. Its use starts from cosmetics and reaches even the most difficult illnesses such as multiple sclerosis (MS). See here a short documentary about this.